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英语语法 | 状语从句

发布时间:2017-09-30 11:45:23编辑:365bet体育在线来源:www.356884.com浏览量:


由从句担任的状语,在句子中可修饰谓语(或其他动词)、形容词、副词或是整个句子,它可以用来表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、方式、比较、让步 等。状语从句是一较大的语法项目,也是近几年高考题中常见的一个重要试点。高考中已考查了时间、让步、地点、条件、目的等状语从句,这些从句仍是今后高考 热点,应作充分准备。同时对方式状语从句也应引起重视。




  表示时间的状语从句可由when, as, while, whenever, after, before, till (until), since, once, as soon as (或the moment ), by the time, no sooner …… than, hardly (scarcely) …… when, every time等引导。


  e.g. When I came into the office, the teachers were having a meeting.


  He started as soon as he received the news.


  Once you see him, you will never forget him.


  No sooner had I gone to bed than I went to sleep.





  原因状语从句是表示原因或理由的,引导这类从句的最常用的连词是because, since, as , now that(既然)等,for 表示因果关系时(它引导的不是从句)为并列连词,语气不如because强。


  e.g. He is disappointed because he didn‘t get the position.


  As it is raining, I will not go out.


  Now that you mention it, I do remember.





  引导地点状语从句的连词是where 和wherever等。


  e.g. Sit wherever you like.


  Make a mark where you have a question.





  引导目的状语从句最常用的词(组)是so, so that(从句谓语常有情态动词), in order that, in case(以防,以免)等。


  e.g. Speak clearly, so that they may understand you.


  She has bought the book in order that she could follow the TV lessons.


  He left early in case he should miss the train.




  结果状语从句是表示事态结果的从句,通常主句是原因,从句是结果。由so that(从句谓语一般没有情态动词), so …… that, such …… that等引导。


  e.g. She was ill, so that she didn’t attend the meeting.


  He was so excited that he could not say a word.


  She is such a good teacher that everyone admires her.





  条件状语从句分真实性(有可能实现的事情)与非真实性(条件与事实相反或者在说话者看来不大可能实现的事情)条件句。引导条件状语从句的词(组)主要有 if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that, so (as) far as, if only ( = if )。注意:条件从句中的if 不能用whether替换。


  e.g. If he is not in the office, he must be out for lunch.


  You may borrow the book so long as you keep it clean.


  So far as I know(据我所知), he will be away for three months.


  You can go swimming on condition that ( = if ) you don‘t go too far away from the river bank.


  If he had come a few minutes earlier, he could have seen her.





  让步状语从句可由although, though, as, even if (though), however, whatever, whether …… or, no matter who (when, what, ……) 等引导。注意:as引导的让步状语从句一般是倒装的。


  e.g. Though he is a child, he knows a lot.


  Child as he is, he knows a lot.


  Whatever ( = No matter what ) you say, I’ll never change my mind.




  方式状语从句常由as, as if (though), the way, rather than等引导。


  e.g. You must do the exercise as I show you.


  He acted as if nothing had happened.





  比较状语从句常用than, so (as) …… as, the more …… the more等引导。


  e.g. I have made a lot more mistakes than you have.


  He smokes cigarettes as expensive as he can afford.


  The busier he is, the happier he feels.





  1. 在时间和条件(有时也在方式、让步等)从句中,主句是一般将来时,从句通常用一般现在时表示将来。


  e.g. We‘ll go outing if it doesn’t rain tomorrow.


  I‘ll write to you as soon as I get to Shanghai.


  2. 有些时间、地点、条件、方式或让步从句,如果从句的主语与主句主语一致(或虽不一致,是it),从句的谓语又包含动词be,就可省略从句中的“主语 + be”部分。


  e.g. When (he was) still a boy of ten, he had to work day and night.


  If (you are) asked you may come in.


  If (it is) necessary I’ll explain to you again.


  3. 注意区分不同从句:引导的是什么从句,不仅要根据连词,还要根据句子结构和句意来判别。以where为例,能引导多种从句。


  e.g. You are to find it where you left it.(地点状语从句)


  Tell me the address where he lives.(定语从句,句中有先行词)


  I don‘t know where he came from.(宾语从句)


  Where he has gone is not known yet.(主语从句)


  This place is where they once hid.(表语从句)

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