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5大基础英语语法常识,你记住多少?

发布时间:2017-01-17 13:59:25编辑:来源:浏览量:

       5大基础英语语法常识,你记住多少?


       语法常识一名词:名词单复数,名词的格

       (一)名词单复数

       1.一般情况,直接加-s,如:book-books, bag-bags, cat-cats, bed-beds
       2.以s. x. sh. ch结尾,加-es,如:bus-buses, box-boxes, brush-brushes, watch-watches
       3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:family-families, strawberry-strawberries
       4.以“f或fe”结尾,变f或fe为v, 再加-es,如:knife-knives
       5.不规则名词复数:
       man-men, woman-women, policeman-policemen, policewoman-policewomen, mouse-mice child-children, foot-feet, tooth-teeth, fish-fish, people-people, Chinese-Chinese, Japanese-Japanese
       不可数名词的复数就是原型: paper, juice, water, milk, rice, tea
  
       (二)名词的格

       (1) 有生命的东西的名词所有格:
       a) 单数后加 ’s 如: Lucy’s ruler my father’s shirt
       b) 以s 结尾的复数名词后加 ’如: his friends’ bags
       c) 不以s 结尾的复数后加 ’s children’s shoes
       并列名词中,如果把 ’s加在最后一个名词后,表示共有, 如:
       Tom and Mike’s car 汤姆和迈克共有的小汽车
       要表示所有物不是共有的,应分别在并列名词后加’s
       Tom’s and Mike’s cars 汤姆和麦克各自的小汽车
       (2)表示无生命东西的名词通常用“ of +名词”来表示所有关系:如:
       a picture of the classroom a map of China


       语法常识二:不定冠词,定冠词种类:
  
       (1)不定冠词:a / an a unit / an uncle
       元音开头的可数名词前用an :
       an egg / an apple / an orange / an eraser / an answer / an ID card / an alarm clock / an actor / an actress / an e-mail / an address / an event / an example / an opera / an houran old man / an interesting book / an exciting sport / an action movie / an art lesson /
       (2)定冠词:the the egg the plane
  
       2. 用法:定冠词的用法:

       (1)特指某(些)人或某(些)物: The ruler is on the desk.
        (2)复述上文提到的人或物:He has a sweater. The sweater is new.
       (3)谈话双方都知道的人或物:The boys aren’t at school.
        (4)在序数词前: John’s birthday is February the second.
       (5)用于固定词组中: in the morning / afternoon / evening
       不用冠词的情况:
        (1)专有名词前:China is a big country.
        (2)名词前有定语:this , that , my , your , some, any , no 等:This is my baseball.
       (3)复数名词表示一类人和事:Monkeys can’t swim. They are teachers.
       (4)在节日,日期,月份,季节前:Today is Christmas Day. It’s Sunday.
       (5)一日三餐前:We have breakfast at 6:30.
       (6)球类 棋类运动前:They often play football after class. He plays chess at home.
       但乐器前要用定冠词:I play the guitar very well.
       (7)学科名称前:My favorite subject is music.
       (8)在称呼或头衔的名词前:This is Mr Li.
       (9)固定词组中:at noon at night by bus

       语法常识三:常用介词:in, on, at, behind等

       1.at表示时间概念的某一个点。(在某时刻、时间、阶段等)。
       at 1:00(dawn,midnight,noon)在一点钟(黎明、午夜、中午)
       2.on
       1)表示具体日期。
       注:(1)关于"在周末"的几种表示法:
       at(on)the weekend在周末---特指
       at(on)weekends在周末---泛指
       over the weekend在整个周末
       during the weekend在周末期间
       (2)在圣诞节,应说at Christmas?而不说on Christmas?
       2)在(刚……)的时候。
       On reaching the city he called up his parents.
       一到城里他就给父母打了一个电话。
       3.in
       1)表示"时段"、"时期",在多数情况下可以和during互换,前者强调对比,后者强调持续。 in(during)1988(December,the 20th century)在一九八八年(十二月、二十世纪)

       语法常识四:动词的四种时态:

       (1)一般现在时:
       一般现在时的构成
  1. be动词:主语+be(am, is, are)+其它。如: I am a boy. 我是一个男孩。
  2. 行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。 如: We study English. 大家学习英语。
  当主语为第三人称单数(he, she, it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
  动词+s的变化规则
  1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks
  2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
  3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies
  (2)一般过去时:
  动词过去式详解 动词的过去式的构成规则有:
  A、规则动词
  ① 一般直接在动词的后面加ed:如 worked , learned , cleaned , visited
  ② 以e结尾的动词直接加d:如 lived , danced , used
  ③ 以辅音字母加y结尾的动词要改y为i再加ed(此类动词较少)如 study – studied carry – carried worry – worried (注意play、stay不是辅音字母加y,所以不属于此类)
  ④ 双写最后一个字母(此类动词较少)如 stopped
  B、不规则动词(此类词并无规则,须熟记)小学阶段要记住以下动词的原形和过去式:sing – sang , eat – ate ,
  see – saw , have – had , do – did , go – went , take – took , buy – bought , get – got , read – read ,fly – flew , am/is – was ,
  are – were , say – said , leave – left , swim – swam , tell – told , draw – drew , come – came , lose – lost , find – found , drink – drank , hurt – hurt , feel – felt
  (3)一般将来时:
  基本结构:
  ①be going to + do;
  ②will+ do. be going to = will
  I am going to go swimming tomorrow(明天). = I will go swimming tomorrow.
  (4)现在进行时: am,is,are+动词现在分词
  动词现在分词详解 动词的ing形式的构成规则:
  ① 一般的直接在后面加上ing , 如doing , going , working , singing , eating
  ② 以e 结尾的动词,要先去e再加ing ,如having , writing
  ③ 双写最后一个字母的(此类动词极少)有:running , swimming , sitting , getting
  
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