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who、whom、whose、which、that引导的定语从句

发布时间:2017-03-22 09:31:11编辑:365bet体育在线来源:www.356884.com浏览量:

 本文章由春喜在线英语2017.3.22日编辑发布

一、定语从句基本概念

定语从句通常在英语复合句中充当定语的作用,在简单句中,定语往往用来修饰代词、名词或名词性短语

Tom is a handsome boy. Tom是个英俊的男孩。

There is a good boy. 有个乖男孩。

将以上的两句转换为定语从句则为:

Tom is the boy who is handsome.

There is a boy who is good.

 

二、定语从句中两大要素

了解了定语的作用之后,现在进入定语从句的正式学习。想要辨别定语从句,必须了解定语从句的两大要素:关系代词(或关系副词)、先行词。

本节重点讲解由关系代词引导的定语从句,下一节将为大家带来关系副词引导的定语从句。

简单例举一个定语从句。

He is a good person who would like to help anyone. 他是一个好人,肯帮助任何人。

其中person就是先行词,who则为关系代词

who是用来指代这个先行词person,因此称为关系代词。此外,who只能做“人”关系代词,比如boy、girl、people等。

除了who之外,关系代词还有whom、whose、which、that

其中,值得注意的是,当定语从句修饰一个“人”时,选择关系代词必须了解先行词在从句中的位置才能做出决定,大家可以用拆分复合句的方法来判断。

1.He is a good person who would like to help anyone. 他是一个好人,肯帮助任何人。

拆分后:

He is a good person.

The person would like to help anyone.

拆分后可以发现,先行词在第二句中做主语,因此用who.

2.He is the man whom I met yesterday.

拆分后:

He is the man.

I met the man yesterday.

拆分后可以发现,先行词在第二句中做宾语,因此用whom.

 

当需要使用修饰“物”的关系代词时

1.This is a car which(that) is red.

拆分后:

This is a car.

The car is red

拆分后发现,先行词在第二句中做主语.

2.This is the book which you gave me yesterday.

拆分后:

This is the book.

You gave me the book yesterday

拆分后发现,先行词在第二句中做宾语

3.This is the room in which you were born.

拆分后:

This is the room.

You were born in the room

拆分后发现,先行词在第二句中做宾语。特别注意,当第二句中动词之后跟一个介词,在写定语从句时必须把介词提到关系代词之前。

 

最后一个,当关系代词要指代“人”或“物”的所有格(属格)时

This is the bike whose brake was damaged(the brake of which was damaged) 这辆自行车的刹车坏了。

拆分后:

This is the bike.

The bike‘s brake was damaged.或The brake of the bike was damaged.

先行词The bike在第二句中做定语,什么的刹车坏了?The bike的刹车坏了。修饰这个刹车(the brake)

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