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省略句的用法

发布时间:2017-03-30 10:03:27编辑:365bet体育在线来源:www.356884.com浏览量:

  本文章由春喜在线英语2017.3.29日编辑发布

1. 省略句的定义

省略是为了避免重复、突出新信息并使上下文紧密连接的一种语法修辞手段。省略在语言中,尤其在对话中,是一种十分普遍的现象。

 

2. 小品词的省略

( 1 )省略介词

He spent four hours (in) going over his lessons. 他花了四个小时复习功课。

I ' ve studied Eng1ish (for) five years. 我已学五年英语了。

( 2 )省略连词 that

I believe (that) you will succeed . 我相信你们会成功的。

It ' s a pity (that) he ' s leaving. 他要走,真遗憾。

I ' m sure (that) she will help you. 我肯定她会帮你的。

注:在宾语从句中,当有两个及以上并列从句时,第一个that可省,以后的均不可省。

( 3 )省略关系代词

I ' ll give you all (that) I have. 我要把我所有的一切都给你。

He read the book (which) I got yesterday. 他看过我昨天买的书了。

 

3. 句子成分的省略

( 1 )省略主语

Beg your pardon. (我)请你原谅。( Beg 前省略了主语 I )

Take care! 当心!( Take 前省略了主语 you )

Looks as if it will rain. 看起来象要下雨。( Looks 前省略了主语 it )

( 2 )省略谓语

Who next? 该谁了?( Who 后面省略了谓语 comes )

The river was deep and the ice thin. ( ice 后面省略了 was )

We ' ll do the best we can. 大家将尽力而为。( can 后面省略了动词 do )

( 3 )省略表语

Are you ready? Yes, I am. 你准备好了吗? 我准备好了。( am 后面省略了 ready )

He was a lover of sports as he had been in his youth. 他还是象年轻时那样,是一位运动爱好者。( had been 后面省略了 a lover of sports )

( 4 )省略宾语

Let ' s do the dishes. I ' ll wash and you ' ll dry. 让大家洗碗吧,我来洗,你来揩干。( wash 和 dry 后面省略了宾语 dishes )

( 5 )省略定语

He spent part of the money, and the rest he saved. 那钱他花了部分,其余的他都存了起来。( the rest 后面省略了定语 of the money )

( 6 )省略状语

He was not hurt. Strange! 他没有受伤,真奇怪!( Strange 前面省略了状语 how )

 

难点释疑篇

1. 省略句可同时省掉句子几个成份

What exciting news! (= What exciting news it is!) 多么令人激动的消息啊!

Pity he ' s failed. (= It is a pity that he ' s failed.) 很遗憾,他失败了。

I like him more than her. (= I like him more than I like her.) 我喜欢他更甚于喜欢她。

 

2. 英语中有一些固定的省略结构:

a) 在以 if, when, though, as if (好像)等连词引导的从句中,如从句中的主要动词是 be ,常将主语和动词 be 省略。

If necessary, we shall send a telegram home. 如有必要,大家就往家里打电报。

Whenever possible, he will come to my help. 他一有可能就来帮助我。

While cycling, don ' t forget the traffic lights. 骑车时,不要忘记看红绿灯。

b) 由固定词组引导的疑问句:

What about having a game of chess? 下盘棋怎么样?

How come they left you alone here? 他们怎么会把你一人留在这里呢?

What if it ' s raining? 如果天下雨怎么办?

Why not try again? 为什么不再试试呢?

c) 在口语中,为了避免重复,不定式可以省去和句子前部重复的动词原形而只留下不定式符号 to 。

He may leave if he wishes to. 他可以走,如果他愿意的话。

Don ' t go till I tell you to. 等我叫你走你再走。

 

3. 被省略的部分一般可以在句子中补上,但有时省略结构已经定型,如果把省略部分补上,反而不合乎习惯。

He is taller than I am. 他比我高。( am 之后省略 tall ,补上不合习惯)

No parking. 禁止停车。(告示用语 = No parking is allowed here. )

有一些习惯表达很难补上所省略的部分:

Not at all. 不用谢。

No matter. 不要紧。

Thanks. 谢谢。

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