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英语一般现在时的用法

发布时间:2017-03-14 12:57:20编辑:365bet体育在线来源:www.356884.com浏览量:

本文章由春喜在线英语于2017.3.14日编辑发布

 

 

(一)定义

一般现在时主要用来表示经常性或习惯性的动作,或者是现在的特征或所处的状态。如:

He often goes to school on foot every morning.
She is at work now.
They are primary school students.

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(二)基本结构

从谓语动词的分类来看,一般现在时的基本结构主要分三种情况,即:

1、主语+be+其他成分

其中的be,会随着主语的不同,有am/is/are的变化。am的主语是I,is的主语是第三人称单数,are的主语是第一人称复数、第二人称的单数和复数、第三人称的复数。如:

I am ten years old.
He is in the classroom.
They are in the zoo at the moment.

2、主语+do/does+其他成分

其中,动词do的主语为第一人称的单数和复数、第二人称的单数和复数、第三人称的复数,does的主语为第三人称的单数。如:

We always stay up late on Saturday.
You often forget to bring your textbooks with you.
She likes apples very much.


3、主语+情态动词+be/do+其他成分

此时,情态动词采用的是现在形式,后面的动词都采用原形。如:

She can be a good teacher in the future.
I must leave for the party now.


(三)动词的第三人称单数

动词的第三人称单数,简称三单,是在使用一般现在时中最容易出错的地方。这与汉语的主谓成分在数上没有一致性要求有很大关系。


动词三单常见的变化规则有:

1、直接+s

如:works、plays、sweeps


2、“伤心城市”(即以sh、x、ch、s或ss结尾的单词)加+es

如:washes、fixes、watches、focuses、kisses。


3、以辅音字母+o结尾的+es

如:goes、does、vetoes(否决)


4、以辅音字母+y结尾的,改y为i,再+es

如:studies、flies、dries


5、特殊情况

如:have的三单形式为has。

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(四)常见用法

1、表主语现在所处的状态

The book is on the desk.
I am very busy.


2、表主语的身份或职业

She is our English teacher.
His father is a doctor.


3、表主语的特征或特点

The dog often barks at strangers.
He is bad-tempered.


4、表主语的能力

The cat can see well in the darkness.
He is good at swimming.


5、表主语的国籍

Mary comes from Britain.
He is a Chinese.


6、表主语经常性或习惯性的行为

Jack sometimes goes hiking by himself on weekends.
They usually visit museums in their spare time.


7、表主语的兴趣爱好

She likes reading novels very much.
I want a cup of tea.


8、表天气或气候

It is sunny today.
It often rains a lot in spring in Shanghai.


9、表客观事实或真理

Taiwan lies in the southeast of China.
The sun rises from the east and sets in the west.


10、表按计划或安排好的或将要发生的动作

这类用法一般只限于start、begin、leave、go、come、arrive、return、take place等。 如:

The train leaves at four tomorrow afternoon.
She comes back home tonight.


11、表将来(在时间和条件状语从句中)

If he comes, I will tell him about it.
When the plane arrives, she will meet him herself.


12、用在格言、警句中

Pride goes before a fall. (骄必败。)
Time is money. (时间就是金钱。)


13、表过去

1) 用于某些动词(tell、say、hear、learn等)表示不确定的过去时间。如:

She tells me Jack will come tomorrow. (她告诉我杰克明天要来。)
I hear that he won the first prize in the competiton last week. (我听说他在上周的比赛中得了第一名。 )

2)当要陈述一个客观事实时,有时即使有过去时间状语也可用一般现在时。如:

The story is set in the summer of 1937. (故事的背景是1937年夏天。)
The story begins in the year 1937. (故事开始于1937年。)

 


(五)常见的标志性词语

1、频度副词

按照频度高低,常见的频度副词如下:

always
usually
often
sometimes
seldom
never


2、every+时间单位

every day/week/month/year


3、一天里的时间

in the morning/afternoon/evening
at noon/night


(六)句型转换

1、谓语动词为be动词或情态动词的句子

此时,如果是要转换为否定句,则直接在be动词或情态动词后加not。如:

He can drive a car.
He cannot (或can't) drive a car.
She is on the playground.
She is not (或isn't) on the playground.
如果要转换为一般疑问句或对划线部分提问,则直接把be动词或情态动词提到句首即可。如:

He can drive a car.
Can he drive a car? Yes, he can. / No, he can't.
What can he drive? (提问a car)
She is on the playground.
Is she on the playground. Yes, she is. / No, she isn't.
Where is she? (提问on the playground)


2、谓语动词为其他动词的句子

此时,如果是要转换为否定句,需要借助助动词do/does,在后面加not,同时原有的动词要恢复原形。如:

He often goes to work by car every day.
He doesn't often go to work by car every day.
如果要转换为一般疑问句或对划线部分提问,需要借助助动词do/does,提到句首,原有动词要恢复原形。如:

She seldom goes hiking on her own.
Does she seldom go hiking on her own? Yes, he does. / No, he doesn't.
What does she seldom do on her own? (提问goes hiking)


【注意】

1、如果原句的主语为第一人称,变为一般疑问句或对划线部分提问时,要改为第二人称。如:

I often have English classes on Friday.
Do you often have English classes on Friday? Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
What classes do you often have on Friday? (提问English)
2、如果原句中含有some,变为否定句或疑问句时,一般要改为any。如:

There are some oranges on the plate.
There aren't any oranges on the plate.
Are there any oranges on the plate? Yes, there are. / No, there aren't.
Where are there any oranges? (提问on the plate)

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