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相互代词与指示代词的区别

发布时间:2017-06-26 12:24:24编辑:365bet体育在线来源:www.356884.com浏览量:

本文章由春喜在线英语2017.6.26日编辑发布

 

 

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相互代词

1)相互代词只有each other和one another两个词组。他们表示句中动词所叙述的动作或感觉在涉及的各个对象之间是相互存在的,例如:

It is easy to see that the people of different cultures have always copied each other.

显而易见,不同学问的人总是相互借鉴的。

2) 相互代词的句法功能:

a. 作动词宾语;

People should love one another. 人们应当彼此相爱。

b. 可作介词宾语;

Does bark, cocks crow, frogs croak to each other. 吠、鸡鸣、蛙儿对唱。

说明:传统语法认为,相互关系存在于两个人或物之间用each other, 存在于两个以上人和物之间用one another。现代英语中,两组词交替使用的实例也很多,例如:

He put all the books beside each other.

他把所有书并列摆放起来。

He put all the books beside one another.

他把所有书并列摆放起来。

Usually these small groups were independent of each other.

这些小团体通常是相互独立的。

c. 相互代词可加-'s构成所有格,例如:

The students borrowed each other's notes.

学生们互借笔记。


指示代词

1) 指示代词分单数(this / that)和复数(these / those)两种形式,既可作限定词又可做代词,例如:

单数 复数

限定词:This girl is Mary. Those men are my

teachers.

代词: This is Mary. Those are my

teachers.

2) 指示代词的句法功能;

a. 作主语

This is the way to do it.

这事儿就该这样做。

b. 作宾语

I like this better than that.

我喜欢这个甚至那个。

c. 作主语补语

My point is this.

我的观点就是如此。

d. 作介词宾语

I don't say no to that.

我并未拒绝那个。

There is no fear of that.

那并不可怕。

 
说明1:

指示代词在作主语时可指物也可指人,但作其他句子成分时只能指物,不能指人,例如:

(对)That is my teacher. 那是我的老师。( that作主语,指人)

(对)He is going to marry this girl. 他要和这个姑娘结婚。(this作限定词)

(错)He is going to marry this. (this作宾语时不能指人)

(对)I bought this. 我买这个。(this指物,可作宾语)

 

说明2:

That和those可作定语从句的先行词,但this和 these不能,同时,在作先行词时,只有those可指人,试比较:

(对) He admired that which looked beautiful. 他赞赏外表漂亮的东西。

(对) He admired those who looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的人。(those指人)

(错) He admired that who danced well. (that作宾语时不能指人)

(对) He admired those who danced well. 他赞赏跳舞好的人。(those指人)

(对) He admired those which looked beautiful. 他赞赏那些外表漂亮的东西。(those指物)

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